The Japan-China war turned into a furious war, and the Japanese Imperial Military raped women and enormous numbers of gang rapes arose in Nanjing Massacre in 1937, especially. The Japanese Imperial Military considered a rise in the Chinese civilians' anti-Japanese sentiment, so then they then established comfort stations in the center city. Women from Japanese occupied territories, including Korea and Japan were dispatched to the stations and Chinese women were also forced to serve as comfort women, too. On the other hands, the Japanese Imperial Military continued to abduct women from villages and imprisoned them to rape in turn, and Anti-Japanismist and their family members were tortured by sexual abuse. After the WWII, some crimes of sexual assault were judged at the war-crime trial and factual investigations for war survivors were carried out, but there were only a few records of survivors came coming up.
In 1992, Ai-hua Wan from Shanxi province took an initiative in public saying that she was a former comfort woman, and other survivors also came forward to demand the Japanese government for compensations. Afterwards, more victims were found in various parts of China. Archives were excavated and the remains of comfort stations were preserved, establishing 4 comfort station museums.